Dyslexia: genes, brain functions, interventions Reading disorder is a major challenge with a genetic background and related abnormal brain activity. The goal of this research is—by collecting the most important pieces of information from genetic, brain and behavioral observations of dyslexia—to devise a training regimen where use of an enjoyable digital game successfully supports reading skills even in individuals with the most severe reading difficulties. We bring together a multidisciplinary group of experts in genetics, brain dynamics and neuropsychology of reading and dyslexia to identify the bottlenecks in learning, importantly strengthened by data analysis of the empirical observations on learning by Ekapeli players.




Academy of Finland (Personalised Health – From Genes to Society)


Heikki Lyytinen, Ph.D.
Miia Ronimus, Ph.D.
Marko Niemelä


  • Unesco Chair Professor Heikki Lyytinen, Consortium PI, University of Jyväskylä & Senior Research Fellow in Niilo Mäki Institute
  • Professor Juha Kere, co-coordinator, Subproject PI, Folkhälsan
  • Academy Professor Riitta Salmelin, Subproject PI, Aalto University


  • Senior Fellow Harri Ketamo, PhD, University of Turku
  • University Lecturer Ritva Ketonen, PhD, University of Helsinki & Niilo Mäki Institute, Jyväskylä

What are we researching and why?

The main goal of the DYSGEBRA (Dyslexia: genes, brain functions, interventions) project is to unravel the mystery of dyslexia to a degree where we will be able to develop methods for minimising the negative consequences of even the most severe forms of dyslexia. Although we know that genes and brain functions play a part in dyslexia, we do not know enough about the “bottlenecks” in brain functions caused by atypical genes, which are still at least partly unknown and thus under study. Also, we know that effective training of connections between spoken and written language (using GraphoGame technology) can help most children, but we are not yet able to provide adequate support to children with problems faced by the lowest percentiles of learners.

We expect that the results of this study will enable the further development of our intervention methods, the effectiveness of which we aim to prove as the final step of the study. An important component in this development work is big-data analysis, which utilises the game log files of hundreds of thousands of Finnish GraphoGame users. We aim to find subgroups of children showing particularly severe difficulties in learning and analyse their learning process in order to develop more effective adaptation procedures.

Interdisciplinary collaboration within the project 

We aim to meet the goals of this study by interdisciplinary collaboration involving top experts in genetic research, brain research, neuropsychology, learning research, statistics and information technology.

From research to practice

Immediately after discovering solutions, we will apply them to practice by delivering them to all Finnish children via the GraphoGame service (used by thousands of children daily), and at a later stage, to the hundreds of millions of children who are unable to achieve adequate reading skills because of poor reading instruction. The website info.graphogame.com provides more information of our global work involving studies in more than 30 countries.

Already in its current form, GraphoGame adapts individually to each player’s skill level. However, after we have been able to identify the final bottlenecks (e.g. specific genetic profile or atypicality in brain functions) hindering learning, we will be able to improve the effectiveness of the adaptation procedures.

We expect the effects of this study to spread outside Finland. According to our principles, the new training methods are first adjusted to each language/orthography and culture, and experimental studies are then conducted to ensure their functionality and effectiveness in each country. The knowledge acquired in this study will be added to the knowledge we have already gained, for example, in Africa, where in many countries GraphoGame research and application to practice is almost at the same stage as in Finland. In Finland, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture has supported the delivery of the GraphoGame service to all those who need support in learning to read regardless of where in Finland they live. The present study will refine this service so that also children with the most severe problems will receive effective individual support.


Heikki Lyytinen, heikki.j.lyytinen@jyu.fi, +358 50 552 4892

Miia Ronimus, miia.ronimus@nmi.fi, +358 40 805 3568